College Board AP Standards and Guidelines for Foreign Language
Preparing for the 21st Century
In 1993, a coalition of
four national language organizations
Council on the Teaching of
Foreign Languages, the
American Association of
Teachers of French, the
American Association of
Teachers of German, and
the American Association of
Teachers of Spanish and
Portuguese) received funding
to develop standards
for foreign language education,
This was the seventh
and final subject area to
receive federal support to
develop national standards
as part of the Bush Administration’s
education initiative, which
continued under Goals 2000 in the Clinton Administration. An eleven-member task
force, representing a variety of languages, levels of instruction, program models, and
geographic regions, was appointed to undertake the task of definingcontent standards—
what students should know and be able to do—in foreign language education.
At each stage of development, the task force shared its work with the broader profession
and the public at large. The resulting document represents an unprecedented
consensus among educators, business leaders, government, and the community on the
definition and role of foreign language instruction in American education.
The standards do not describe the current status of foreign language education in
this country. While they reflect the best instructional practice, they do not describe
what is being attained by the majority of foreign language students.The Standards for
Foreign Language Learningwill not be achieved overnight; rather, they provide a gauge
against which to measure improvement in the years to come.
The standards are not a curriculum guide. While they suggest the types of curricular
experiences needed to enable students to achieve the standards, and support the
ideal of extended sequences of study that begin in the elementary grades and continue
through high school and beyond, they do not describe specific course content, nor
recommended sequence of study. They must be used in conjunction with state and
local standards and curriculum frameworks to determine the best approaches and reasonable
expectations for the students in individual districts and schools.
Language and communication are at the
heart of the human experience. The
United States must educate students who
are linguistically and culturally equipped
to communicate successfully in a pluralistic
American society and abroad. This
imperative envisions a future in which
ALL students will develop and maintain
proficiency in English and at least one
other language, modern or classical.
Children who come to school from non-
English backgrounds should also have
opportunities to develop further proficiencies
in their first language.
Statement of Philosophy
Standards for Foreign Language Learning
The purposes and uses of foreign languages are as diverse as the
students who study them. Some students study another language in
hopes of finding a rewarding career in the international marketplace
or government service. Others are interested in the intellectual challenge
and cognitive benefits that accrue to those who master multiple
languages. Still others seek greater understanding of other people
and other cultures. Many approach foreign language study, as
they do other courses, simply to fulfill a graduation requirement.
Regardless of the reason for study, foreign languages have something
to offer everyone. It is with this philosophy in mind that the
standards task force identified five goal areas that encompass all of
these reasons:Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons,
andCommunities—the five C’s of foreign language education.
Communicationis at the heart of second language study,
whether the communication takes place face-to-face, in writing,
or across centuries through the reading of literature.
Through the study of other languages, students gain a
knowledge and understanding of thecultures that use that language
and, in fact, cannot truly master the language until they
have also mastered the cultural contexts in which the language
Learning languages providesconnections to additional bodies
of knowledge that may be unavailable to the monolingual
Throughcomparisons and contrasts with the language
being studied, students develop insight into the nature of language
and the concept of culture and realize that there are multiple
ways of viewing the world.
Together, these elements enable the student of languages to
participate in multilingualcommunities at home and around
the world in a variety of contexts and in culturally appropriate
“Knowing how, when, and why to say what to whom”
All the linguistic and social knowledge required for effective human-to-human interaction
is encompassed in those ten words. Formerly, most teaching in foreign language
classrooms concentrated on thehow (grammar) to say what (vocabulary).
While these components of language are indeed crucial, the current organizing principle
for foreign language study iscommunication, which also highlights the why, the
whom, and the when. So, while grammar and vocabulary are essential tools for communication,
it is the acquisition of the ability to communicate in meaningful and
appropriate ways with users of other languages that is the ultimate goal of today’s foreign
The Five C’s of
Communicate in Languages
Other Than English
Standard 1.1:Students engage in conversations,
provide and obtain information,
express feelings and emotions, and exchange
Standard 1.2:Students understand and
interpret written and spoken language on
a variety of topics.
Standard 1.3:Students present information,
concepts, and ideas to an audience of
listeners or readers on a variety of topics.
Gain Knowledge and
Understanding of Other Cultures
Standard 2.1:Students demonstrate an
understanding of the relationship between
the practices and perspectives of the culture
Standard 2.2: Students demonstrate an
understanding of the relationship between
the products and perspectives of the culture
Connect with Other Disciplines and
Standard 3.1:Students reinforce and further
their knowledge of other disciplines
through the foreign language.
Standard 3.2:Students acquire information
and recognize the distinctive viewpoints
that are only available through the foreign
language and its cultures.
Develop Insight into the Nature of
Language and Culture
Standard 4.1:Students demonstrate understanding
of the nature of language through comparisons
of the language studied and their own.
Standard 4.2:Students demonstrate understanding
of the concept of culture through comparisons
of the cultures studied and their own.
Participate in Multilingual Communities
at Home & Around the World
Standard 5.1:Students use the language
both within and beyond the school setting.
Standard 5.2:Students show evidence of
becoming life-long learners by using the
language for personal enjoyment and
Following is an abbreviated sample of the goals, standards, and progress indicators for grades four, eight, and twelve
as they appear in “Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century.”
1.1 Students engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions,
and exchange opinions.
This standard focuses on interpersonal communication, that is, direct oral or written communication
between individuals who are in personal contact. In most modern languages, students
can quite quickly learn a number of phrases that will permit them to interact with each other.
In the course of their study, they will grow in their ability to converse in a culturally appropriate
Sample Progress Indicators
1.2 Students understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics.
Standard 1.2 involves one-way listening and reading in which the learner works with a variety
of print and non-print materials. The context in which the language is experienced and the ability
to control what they hear and read may impact students’ development of comprehension. As
a result, the ability to read may develop before the ability to comprehend rapid spoken language.
In addition, content knowledge will often affect successful comprehension, for students understand
more easily materials that reflect their interests or for which they have some background.
Sample Progress Indicators
1.3 Students present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics.
This standard focuses on the formal presentation of information, concepts, and ideas in spoken
and written form and is concerned, in most cases, with one-way speaking and writing. Students
with little or no previous language experience are likely to produce written and spoken language
that will contain a variety of learned patterns or will look like English with words in the
other language. This is a natural process and, over time, they begin to acquire authentic patterns
and to use appropriate styles. By contrast, home-background students will write in ways that
closely resemble the spoken language. Moreover, they will control informal oral styles. Over
time these learners will develop the ability to write and speak using more formal styles.
Sample Progress Indicators
Grade 4: Students ask and answer questions
about such things as family, school
events, and celebrations in person or via
letters, e-mail, or audio and video tapes.
Grade 8: Students exchange information
about personal events, memorable experiences,
and other school subjects with peers
and/or members of the target cultures.
Grade 12: Students exchange, support, and
discuss their opinions and individual perspectives
with peers and/or speakers of the target
language on a variety of topics dealing with
contemporary and historical issues.
Grade 4: Students comprehend the main
idea of developmentally appropriate oral
narratives such as personal anecdotes, familiar
fairy tales, and other narratives based on
Grade 8: Students use knowledge acquired in
other settings and from other subject areas to
comprehend spoken and written messages
in the target languages.
Grade 12: Students demonstrate an increasing
understanding of the cultural nuances of
meaning in written and spoken language as
expressed by speakers and writers of the target
language in formal and informal settings.
Grade 4: Students prepare illustrated stories
about activities or events in their environment
and share with an audience such
as the class.
Grade 8: Students prepare tape or video
recorded messages to share locally or with
school peers and/or members of the target
cultures on topics of personal interest.
Grade 12: Students prepare a researchbased
analysis of a current event from the
perspective of both the U.S. and target cultures.
2.1 Students demonstrate an understanding of the
relationship between the practices and perspectives
of the culture studied.
This standard focuses on thepractices that are
derived from the traditional ideas and attitudes (perspectives)
of a culture. Cultural practices refer to patterns
of behavior accepted by a society and deal with
aspects of culture such as rites of passage, the use of
forms of discourse, the social “pecking order,” and
the use of space. In short, they represent the knowledge
of “what to do when and where.”
2.2 Students demonstrate an understanding of the
relationship between the products and perspectives
of the culture studied.
This standard focuses on theproducts of the culture studied
and on how they reflect the perspectives of the culture.
Products may be tangible (e.g., a painting, a piece of literature,
a pair of chopsticks) or intangible (e.g., an oral tale, a dance, a
sacred ritual, a system of education). Whatever the form of the
product, its presence within the culture is required or justified
by the underlying beliefs and values (perspectives) of that culture,
and the cultural practices involve the use of that product.
3.1 Students reinforce and further their knowledge
of other disciplines through the foreign language.
Learning today is no longer restricted to a specific discipline;
it has become interdisciplinary. Just as reading
cannot be limited to a particular segment of the school
day, so too can foreign language build upon the
knowledge that students acquire in other subject
areas. In addition, students can relate the information
studied in other subjects to their learning of the foreign
language and culture. Foreign language instruction
thus becomes a means to expand and deepen
students’ understanding of, and exposure to, other
areas of knowledge. The new information and concepts
presented in one class become the basis of continued
learning in the foreign language classroom.
3.2 Students acquire information and recognize the
distinctive viewpoints that are only available
through the foreign language and its cultures.
As a consequence of learning another language and
gaining access to its unique means of communication,
students are able to broaden the sources of information
available to them. They have a “new window
on the world.” At the early levels of language learning,
students can begin to examine a variety of
sources intended for native speakers, and extract specific
information. As they become more proficient
users of the foreign language, they can seek out materials
of interest to them, analyze the content, compare
it to information available in their own language, and
assess the linguistic and cultural differences.
4.1 Students demonstrate understanding of the
nature of language through comparisons of
the language studied and their own.
This standard focuses on the impact that learning the
linguistic elements in the new language has on students’
ability to examine English and to develop
hypotheses about the structure and use of languages.
From the earliest language learning experiences, students
can compare and contrast the two languages as
different elements are presented. Activities can be
systematically integrated into instruction that will
assist students in gaining understanding and in
developing their abilities to think critically about
how languages work.
4.2 Students recognize that cultures use different patterns
of interaction and can apply this knowledge
to their own culture.
As students expand their knowledge of cultures
through language learning, they continually discover
perspectives, practices, and products that are similar
and different from their own culture, and they develop
the ability to hypothesize about cultural systems in
general. Some students may make these comparisons
naturally, others may not. This standard helps focus
this reflective process for all students by encouraging
integration of this process into instruction from the
earliest levels of learning.
5.1 Students use the language both within and
beyond the school setting.
This standard focuses on language as a tool for communication
with speakers of the language throughout
one’s life: in schools, in the community, and
abroad. In schools, students share their knowledge
of language and culture with classmates and with
younger students who may be learning the language.
Applying what has been learned in the language
program as defined by the other standards,
students come to realize the advantages inherent in
being able to communicate in more than one language
and develop an understanding of the power
5.2 Students show evidence of becoming lifelong
learners by using the language for personal
enjoyment and enrichment.
Each day millions of Americans spend leisure time
reading, listening to music, viewing films and television
programs, and interacting with each other. By
developing a certain level of comfort with their new
language, students can use these skills to access information
as they continue to learn throughout their
lives. Students who study a language can use their
skills to further enrich their personal lives by accessing
various entertainment and information sources
available to speakers of the language. Some students
may have the opportunity to travel to communities
and countries where the language is used extensively
and, through this experience, further develop their
language skills and understanding of the culture.
SAMPLE LEARNING SCENARIO: NEWSCAST
In the Spanish II class in Williamston High School, a small, rural
community in Michigan, students worked in groups to write, produce,
and videotape a fifteen-to-twenty minute Spanish language
news show that included news events; a live, from-the-scene report;
weather; sports; and commercials. The news events included items
from the Spanish-speaking world, the United States, the state, and
1.1—Students work cooperatively in groups using the language to produce the newscast.
1.3—Students produce the newscast in the language studied.
2.1—Students present news stories that reflect a perspective from the culture studied.
3.1—Students develop news items on a variety of topics.
5.1—Students use the language in the classroom.
5.2—Students develop insights necessary for media literacy.
If the students were asked to view taped newscasts and commercials from two Spanish speaking countries
and use them as models for their project, an emphasis could be placed on Standards 1.2 and 4.1 (in preparing
for the project, students view newscasts and compare and contrast language styles) and Standard 4.2
(students note cultural similarities and differences in the videotapes they viewed). This type of preparation
for the project would also provide the opportunity to target Standard 2.2 with students analyzing a product
of the culture studied. This scenario could be applied to any language at a variety of levels.
1.1 Interpersonal Communication
1.3 Presentational Communication
2.1 Practices of Culture
3.1 Furthering Connections
5.1 School and Community
5.2 Life-long Learning
SAMPLE LEARNING SCENARIO : CHINESE CALENDAR
In Ms. Chen-Lin’s Chinese class in West Hartford, CT, eighth
graders are learning about the Chinese calendar. Students listen to the
folkloric tale of how the years got their names, which the teacher
explains using story cards. The students then use artistic expression to
recall the details of the story by making posters that announce the race of the twelve animals in the story.
They are encouraged to include on their poster the date, time, location, and prize in Chinese. On the next day,
the class explores the importance of a calender in the students’ own culture and in others. The students discuss
the differences found in the Chinese and American calendars. They then make a calendar using Chinese
characters to be used in their homes. They include birthdays, family celebrations, school activities, and other
1.2—Students comprehend the story of the Chinese calendar told in the target language
2.2—Students read about and discuss products of the culture
4.2—Students compare and contrast products found in the two cultures.
In this activity, the students understand the calendar explanation more easily because the teacher accompanies
the story with visuals. The use of artistic expression to check for their understanding allows students with
various learning styles to be successful in showing what they understood from the story. The follow-up discussion
helps students reflect on the importance of a calendar within a culture and the role that the calendar
plays in American culture.
National Standards in Foreign Language Education
a collaborative project of ACTFL, AATF, AATG, AATI, AATSP, ACL/APA,
ACTR, CLASS/CLTA, & NCSTJ/ATJ
c/o American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Inc.
6 Executive Plaza
Yonkers, NY 10701
1.2 Interpretive Communication
2.2 Products of Culture
4.2 Culture Comparisons